Sunday, August 23, 2020

Money, Banking, and Financial Markets Assignment - 1

Cash, Banking, and Financial Markets - Assignment Example 3). Around the globe key records are on the ascent, fuelled by the decrease in the benchmark loan fees by the Central Bank of China (The Globe and Mail Par. 4). The Eurozone has additionally declared it is getting resources in a transition to reinforce the economy of that district (The Globe and Mail Par. 4). The Canadian dollar is developing against different monetary standards, and there is a desire that there will be an expansion in Interest Rates by the Bank of Canada to ponder the new degrees of swelling. Moves made by the Government have arranged Canada as an inflexibly engaging spot to open and build up a business. A strong and forceful business condition, in this way, enables the economy to create (The Globe and Mail Par. 4), makes new occupations and raises our desire for regular daily existence. The Government has passed on the job diminishes totaling more than $60 billion to occupation making associations from 2008â€09 through 2013â€14 ( Par. 23). To fabricate business venture and upgrade benefit, the administration general corporate compensation appraisal rate was reduced to 15 for each penny in 2012 from 22.12 for each penny in 2007 ( Par. 23), remembering the removal of the corporate surtax for 2008 for all associations. In acknowledgment of the particularly perilous effect that capital costs have on business speculation, the administration capital cost was murdered in 2006. The Government in like manner gave a between time cash related ins piring power to ask the territories to discard their general capital costs ( Par. 24). The last commongeneral capital obligation was abstained from in 2012. To engage the advancement of little associations by deserting them with obligation finances that can be held and reinvested in the business, the little business evaluation rate was diminished to 11 for each penny in 2008, and the proportion of pay equipped for

Friday, August 21, 2020

Hamas Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Hamas - Essay Example There are numerous reasons for this savagery and ruthlessness that is going on from the two sides however three of the most significant reasons are examined beneath: 3) Occupation of oil assets: the ongoing flood in the savagery in the district is likewise aimed at the thought that US is after the oil assets of the locale and by possessing them, West will deny the area , its privileges on its own assets. I accept that the control of Palestine is the main driver of the savagery in Middle East and so as to get harmony to that locale, West needs to think of an answer of perceiving the due privileges of each gathering to the area and dependent on that choose to give the privilege political just as conciliatory help. Hamas is an Islamic activist and political gathering working in the Palestinian locale. Established in 1987 by Sheik Yaseen Ahmed in Gaza, Hamas before long rose as one of the most powerful fear based oppressor associations in the district with Israel as its fundamental objective. Recorded as psychological militant associations by numerous nations including Canada and US, Hamas is presently considered as the main ideological group in Palestine additionally after the disappointment of PLO and end of Yasser Arafat. (Hajjar, 1993). It was likewise accepted that the achievement of Hamas as political just as psychological militant association to a great extent relied upon the disappointment of PLO and Yasser Arafat and that the Oslo understanding among Arafat and Israel, facilitated by US, gave Hamas important political help in the district to thrive and fortify its foundations. (Kristianasen, 1999). It is additionally accepted that Hamas, having an Islamic Brotherhood starting, rose as a nother activist development in the locale hued with the Islamic shade and it was a result of this that Hamas had the option to won the decisions. Hamas is an association which is by all accounts consolidating the Islamic fundamentalism with the Palestinian Nationalism. With the essential point of the annihilation of Israel, Hamas is additionally expecting to supplant the PA with an

Thursday, July 9, 2020

Neural Engineering Term Paper - 1925 Words

Neural Engineering (Term Paper Sample) Content: BIO MEDICAL ASSIGNMENTAuthorCourse TitleDatePart One: Neural EngineeringTechnology has evolved over the years, and it is used to make everyday life easier. Innovations have enabled daily lives of people to be a lot easier. New technologies have made it possible for breakthroughs in different areas of professions from business to medicine (WESTON 2004).However, technology has also come with its shortcoming. As much as the new technologies are useful they may be used by, individuals to inflict harm to others. In the modern day of global terrorism and terror threats, extremists use technology to their advantage.Neural engineering attempts to merge the human sensory system with artificial technologies to produce higher functions by the human body. Rudiments behind neural engineering involve the correlation of neurons, neural networks, and nervous system functions. Neural engineering uses quantifiable models to aid the development of devices that can construe and control s ignals and produce purposeful responses to aid the human body.Through technologies in neuromechanics and neuromodulation, neural engineering can be used in fields such as clinical emergency response service. This technology should be embraced in emergency response. However, the use of some technologies is not as easy as one would think. There is the suggestion that the use of Radio Frequency Identification technology (RFID) is viable. It has been deployed in a small scale but with many challenges, the main one being the management of the frequencies at an incident location (VAUGHAN 2006). This has proved to be a challenge, as those people that have bad intent can also monitor frequencies.The use of neuroengineering technology is an expensive endeavor as it is extremely costly to put up the system, run it and train personnel on its effective use over time. Neural Engineering is still a relatively new field of science with little material and research available. However, innovations a re made, and the need to solve some existing human problems. The allocation of valuable manpower in the training of neural techniques is a luxury that most cannot afford.The need for biotechnology in emergency response has elicited suggestions to use neural engineering in identification of emergency response personnel with emphasis on smart cards and body receptors as the preferred technique for the identification process. This is quite an ingenious approach as it enables people to be uniquely identified at the scene. However, it faces various challenges from the cost of running the program to its implementation. The main challenge in my view will have to be the time constraint that is associated with the use of the technology (CHASE 2006).Usually, a scene is usually chaotic, and management of personnel is the main challenge. Introducing this technology will not only put another layer of logistics that will make it difficult to do their work, but creating a huddle that personnel wil l have to jump over.In conclusion, technology should make life easier should one choose to embrace it rather than create more problems that would need costly solution. Therefore, the technology that is being employed here creates more problems than solutions. However, one may argue that technology and innovation come at a cost.Part two: Implanted neural stimulators to counteract epileptic seizuresAn individualà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s health is the one of the most crucial aspect in his/her life. Living a healthy life ensures one goes through life healthy. The health of a person is directly related to various aspects in his life. One needs to ensure that he stays in shape and fully functional.Epileptic seizures are a symptom of abnormally, excessive synchronous neuronal activity in the human brain. These seizures, also called fits, have visible effects on a person experiencing them. Seizures are manifested through hard, wild thrust movements, also called a tonic-clonic seizure. Another symptom of a seizure can be as little as a mild loss of awareness, also called absence seizure. Epileptic episodes are diverse depending on the medical condition of an individual. However, the causes are the same.Health is a key pillar in the social setting of a population. However, over the years, healthy living has become a common topic of discussion. This is mainly because of ailments and health complications that have arisen over the years. Data from the Center for Disease control shows 4% of the population will experience a seizure by the age of 80. Further studies have shown that the chance of experiencing a subsequent seizure increase significantly by as much as 40%. Medical syndrome of regular, gratuitous seizures is termed epilepsy. However, seizures can happen to people who do not have epilepsy as a medical condition (VAUGHAN 2006).Neural engineering has made it possible in the treatment and management of epileptic patients. Through neural stimulators, patients are able to manage ep ileptic episodes. Research done on neural stimulation has shown results that indicate electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve alters the Electroencephalography (EEG) in humans. Given certain stimulus parameters, electrical stimulation can change the levels of electrical activity in the brain. This research has shown significant progress on the effects of neural stimulation as a treatment to epileptic seizures.In the United States alone, the CDC estimates epilepsy affects 0.6%, which is over two million of the total population. This figure is more than any other neurological diseases combined. This is a large number of people with a majority of them being children (CHASE 2006). In finding solutions to this problem, medical institutions have been attempting to use neural engineering, neural stimulation find the best was of managing the condition. Technological innovations have made it possible to have existing technology that treats and manages epileptic episodes more manageable.Rec ently, vagus-nerve stimulator technology has been approved for management of epileptic seizure patients above 12 years. The device, which is like a pace maker, is implanted using two electrodes in the left vagus nerve. Studies have shown reduced rates of epileptic episodes among patients. This closed-loop device has extended to human trials. NeuroPace's Responsive Neurostimulation System (RNS) is an electrical stimulation implant which has two leads, containing four electrodes placed in the brain at the seizure focus point. The technology detects electrical impulses in the brain thus sends stimulation to normalize the seizures in the patient. The device also records the electrical activity in the brain so that it can be analyzed later. Manufacturers of the device have warned of the effect the devices have on the human brain. Since the devices are implanted at the base of the scalp, malfunctioning may cause catastrophic effects to the patient.Approval of neural stimulants in the trea tment and management of epileptic seizures largely depend on the results from human trials. Early results show positive responses as epileptic episodes in a group of patients been reduced by almost 50%. The positive impacts this technology can have of patients cannot be over emphasized.Part Three: Bionic Eye or artificial vision research programsInnovations in neural engineering have made it possible for research into areas of neural science, which were unimaginable, possible. In the past neural stimulation has been used in different areas of the human physiology to help in treating and managing certain conditions, SCHACHTER SCHMIDT (2001). In Australia, scientists and surgeons have been able to use the bionic ear technology for patients as little as 6 years. By implanting neural stimulators in auditory areas of the brain, scientists have been able to restore hearing or improved in patients having hearing disorders. This has enabled research in vision research to take tremendous st rides in efforts to help those with vision problems, FINN LOPRESTI (2003).Some of the institutions involved in artificial vision research include 1 Fight for Sight in New York 2 University of California -Invention of active epi-retinal prosthesis revealed evidence of the principle in acute patients. 3 University of Louvain - Microsystem-based Visual Prosthesis (MIVIP) technology was designed 4 Johns Hopkins University 5 VisionCare Ophthalmic Technologies where Implantable Miniature Telescope developed 6 University Eye Hospital in TÃÆ' ¼bingen - TÃÆ' ¼bingen MPDA Project Alpha IMS 7 Harvard/MIT Retinal Implant, Dobelle Eye 8 Stanford University - Optoelectronic Retinal Prosthesis 9 Bionic Vision Australia 10 Illinois Institute Of Technology (IIT) - Intracortical Visual Prosthesis Polystim neurotechnologies Laboratory at the Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal - Visual Cortical Implant Vision QuestBionic Vision AustraliaResearchers in Australia led by Professor Anthony Burkitt are in the process of developing two retinal prostheses. The researchers are using existing neural stimulus technology to try and change vision technology. Using neural stimulus to stimulate areas of the brain in charge of vision, the technology incorporates advancements made in other organ treatment. The researchers use approximately 98 implanted electrodes in different parts of the brain to increase vision. However, this technology is still limited as they work with individuals who have poor eyesight rather that totally imparted. The technology is awaiting human trial approval, and prototypes have are expected in the market in 2013, DENYS SCHUURMAN (2012).The team of researchers is also in the process of developing a High-Acuity device. By incorporating various new innovative technologies, the device uses microchips, and an implant which contains 1024 electrodes. The...

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Operational Efficiency and Operational Optimization...

Operational Efficiency Operational Optimization Sa – Situation Anlysis Pa – Problem Analysis Da – Decission Analysis Pa – Probabilty Analysis 1) Suppose that a peak harvest-season day involves 18,000 barrels of berries, 70% of them wet harvested, arriving uniformly over a twelve-hour period from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m., and process initiates as soon as the first truck arrives. a) At what time during the day, would the trucks start queuing up to upload? Answer: - Trucks carrying wet berries will have to wait to unload during the day because the incoming arrival rate is 1050 is greater than processing rate 600. The Trucks arriving with dry berries will not have to wait as processing is greater than†¦show more content†¦The predicted increase in the wet berries growth to 70% will increase the overtime issues as the dryer is the bottle neck in the process and wet berries require going through this step. There is also a secondary problem regarding grading of process berries. Half of the berries graded top quality is actually not top quality and do not deserve extra premiums paid on the top quality berries. This is due to the inefficient quality assessment method. The waiting of the Trucks can be reduced by adding an extra storage bin (converting the bins to be used for both wet and dry berries) to the system. The other reason for the increased wait time is that the processing at the plant starts at 11:00 am whereas the trucks start delivering at 7:00am due to which the trucks have to wait for a longer time. So the working shift should be change to 7:00 am instead of 11:00 am. This will effectively decrease the wait time of the berries. This will also eliminate the need of adding the extra storage to the system as the process will start as soon as the deliveries start eliminating the berry stock build up. Scheduling and holding capacities will not work if we cannot dry the berries. By adding two additional driers, NCC will be able to dry 400 barrels per hour of wet berries decreasing the bottleneck. The issue of over incentives paid for theShow MoreRelatedDifference Between Simulation and Optimization1541 Words   |  7 Pagesis whether optimization, simulation, or a hybrid model (combination of optimization and simulation) is a better option to pursue. In this paper, we fundamentally distinguish the two modeling approaches – Supply Chain Optimization vs. Supply Chain Simulation, and the scenarios where the each option should be employed. Overview Optimization focuses on finding the optimal solution from millions of possible alternatives while meeting the given constraints of the supply chain. Optimization utilizes mixedRead MoreThe Summary of What Is Strategy from Michael Porter1471 Words   |  6 Pages What Is Strategy? (To make a summary of the article while answering the question, the answer directly related to the questions are highlighted ) 1. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Choice Of A Person s Life - 1685 Words

Rebecca Huss Professor Terrell English 102 1 October 2015 The Right to Choose Society loves choices. But when it comes to one of the most important decisions in a person’s life, the right to live or die, we only have a select few choices and some of them cause more harm than good. The choice here is whether or not a person should have the right to end his or her life in a safe, peaceful manner when the quality of life is no longer the same quality it once was. Currently only a few states give people the right to choose a peaceful way to end their lives. People should have the right to choose to end their pain and suffering when diagnosed with a terminally ill condition by legalizing physician-assisted death in every state. People often link the terms euthanasia and suicide with physician assisted dying. However, there is a huge difference between these. An informational article by Compassion and Choices explains that aid in dying is the process that allows a mentally competent, terminally ill adult to legally request a prescription for a life-ending medication from their physician. The medication must be self-administered (4). Euthanasia is a physician giving a person medication, mainly by lethal injection, to him or her requesting death. The difference between suicide and aid in dying is simple. Suicide is a physically healthy person choosing death for personal reasons while aid in dying is choosing death sooner instead of later when death is inevitable. KnowingShow MoreRelatedThe Choice Of A Person s Life1685 Words   |  7 PagesHuss Professor Terrell English 102 1 October 2015 The Right to Choose Society loves choices. But when it comes to one of the most important decisions in a person’s life, the right to live or die, we only have a select few choices and some of them cause more harm than good. 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Business Information Analysis Case Study of Nokia

Question: Discuss about theBusiness Information Analysis forCase Study of Nokia. Answer: Introduction It takes effort and devotion for companies to establish roots in international markets. Many companies try and have failed terribly. Nokia a telecommunication network company and has managed to get space into the global market. The company from the United States of America has had immense influence on the global market and its presence has been felt widely. In the mid 1860s, the inquisitiveness of one Engineer Fredrik Idestam a miner from Finland brought into existence one of the most distinguished telecommunication Technology Brands named Nokia with the help of his friend Leo Machelin. The company began as Nokia Ab which was majorly involved in electric business. In the1970s the company became involved in the telecommunications industry. With time competition in the telecommunications industry became intense which made it necessary to invest in marketing to remain competitive. This effort has been put in place over the years enabling the company to be among the top telecommunication Companies not only in Finland but all over the world. Statement of the Problem Globalisation is the new order of the day in the modern business world. All companies are striving to produce products and services for global markets. A number of companies have managed to produce global products. Among these is the Nokia Company. Penetration into the global markets requires marketing of the products. The most important aspect in flourishing of any business would heavily rely on the marketing strategies put in place. A business expands because it invests in research. With intensive research, the business understands its market and then finds the most suitable ways to reach out to the market to grab a significant portion of the market. A Case Study for Understanding the Chosen Business Problem This study will focus on global telecommunications Company named Nokia. Nokia brand has been in the market for quite a while but despite the emergence of new companies in the telecommunications Industry, the company has retained its market share not only in its country of Origin but all over the world. Over the years Nokia has remained ahead of its main competitors Samsung and Aple. Several questions have been raised on what exactly has been the reason for this success. It has emerged that the reason for this success has been mostly because of its marketing strategies. The marketing strategies embraced by the company make it stand out among its competitors. Some of the most common marketing strategies that the company uses include advertising, diversification of products and re-branding. Research Objective The research proposal will be guided by the objective of determining the effects of marketing strategy on the market share of Nokia. Research Questions From the case study one company has been chosen, the following research questions will be used: Which marketing strategy is most suitable for advertising of telecommunications products? How does marketing influence the growth of business today? To have a clearer understanding of the marketing strategies the literature review has been conducted to understand the effect of marketing strategies. Literature Review Introduction A good marketing strategy is a key to success for every company. With the effects of globalization which is felt in every aspect of business today it is crucial for companies to stand out in their marketing strategies in order to grab a niche in the market. This therefore means that failing to implement a good marketing strategy can be a major cause of failure in business. Literature Review `Kenichi Ohmae (2001) a Japanese Strategy guru, furnishes the marketing with the concept of the 3Cs (Customer, Corporation and Competitor). He suggests that if these three are figured in, a company will attain a sustainable competitive market. For so many years, Nokia has been dominant among the telecommunication Companies. This is an industry that has been marked with intense competition with each o the players trying to outdo the other. In such a scenario therefore, the marketing strategy employed become very important in determining the market share for each company. Nokia has engaged various strategies to retain its market share including targeting part in major sponsorship deals targeting various sporting activities. According to an Indian business research journal (2012) the measure of the changing effects of advertising demonstrate that the marketing variable have immense contributions to the performance of a product in the market. These effects are usually short and long term and affect the sales as well. Companies are producing more than needed by consumers and therefore, it requires some selling efforts for them to survive and to generate profits Obeng and Kwadwo (2001). Although advertising service is one element in marketing mix, it has become almost the only commercial venture that companies use to achieve corporate objective and long term profitability. It has emerged that in the recent years, the telecommunications industry has continued to grow attracting several other companies like techno and Infinix which have come in to provide the variety needed to satisfy consumer needs. Nokia continues to shine with almost 40% of the market share. Purchase of Nokia products varies among different age groups with the younger generation mostly those with Android operating systems. This means that Nokia Company has a wide range of Customers with unique needs. According to (obeng and Kwadwo, 2001) the desire for companies to make their products unique from the rest has made a number of companies to invest heavily on marketing campaigns in order to stay ahead of their competitors. Several scholars have attributed the high competition in the Telephone industry to a number of factors including, cost, quality, durability and additional features among other considerations. Uniqueness of products enables them to enjoy large market share with less competition (Kenichi, 2001) Nokia has invested in the advertising and has mainly used the sensationalization to appeal to the most treasured time indicating family and friends association. Conclusion From the above reviewed literature, marketing strategies are vital to success of businesses. The marketing strategy employed in a business determines the market share of company. Nokia stands out in the telecommunications market share not because it has the best products but because it has realized the power of marketing and has invested time and resources to ensuring that its brands are popular among most countries of the world. The Company has also invested in branding in addition to the diversification of its products. The latest of its diversification is the introduction a wide Android phones and cheaper phones to suit the needs of all its clients. A good marketing strategy contributes to the success of the company. Nokia Company has invested heavily in marketing their products which has made the company stand out from the stiff competition in the market. This is partly because other companies have not successfully invested in quality products, as well as the marketing and branding of their products. Recommendations All companies should invest more in marketing in order to gain a larger market share. From the literature review companies that have invested well in advertisement have gained more market shares. Companies should invest in advertising strategies that have long term effects to the consumer .A company like Nokia has slogans that have remained in consumers mind for a very long time. Dealing with global products also comes with many challenges. With the increased brands in the market it is important for companies to invest in marketing in order to make their companies stand out. Companies can also embrace producing high quality products so that they can keep and attract more customers and maintain their space in the market. Such a move will ensure that competitors are only left with only one option of accepting their subordinate role in the market. Nokia Company can also focus on the new customers in the market and identify their various needs through informed research aimed at finding solutions to these needs. Bibliography Basu, P., Consumer Decision Analysis for purchase of Fruit Drinks, Symbiosis Institute of Business Management, Pune. Berry, J. (2005). 'Identifying Reaching and Motivating Key Influencers,' conference paper presented at the Word of Mouth Marketing Association Summit, 29-30 March Chicago. Dye, R. (2000) The Buzz on Buzz, Harvard Business Review, 78(6). 139-146. Ferraro, G.P. (2002) The Cultural dimensions of international business, 4 ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall Gupta, A.K., and Govindarajan, V. (1996) Determinates of Knowledge Outflows from and Inflows into Foreign Subsidiaries in Multinational Corporations Hayes, Jack. "Coca Cola Television Advertisements: Dr. John S. Pemberton". Nation's Restaurant News. Retrieved 2016-12-7 Kahn, B. E., Kalwani, M. U., Morrison D. G.(1998).Niching Versus Change-of-Pace Brs: Using Purchase Frequencies Penetration Rates to infer Br Positioning. J Journal of Marketing Research, 25(4), 384-390. Malcolm Warner, International Encyclopaedia of Business Management, 2nd ed Mark Pendergrast (2000). For God, Country Coca- ColaBasic Books pp. 192193. Prusak, L. (1998) Why Knowledge, Why Now? in Klein, D.A (Ed.), the Strategic Management of Intellectual Capital, Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, Pp 154-174 Riesenberger, J. R. (1998) Executive Insights: Knowledge - The Source of Sustainable Competitive Advantage, Journal of International Marketing, Vol.6, No.3, Pp 94-107. Spender, J. C. (1996) Making Knowledge the Basis of a Dynamic Theory of the Firm, Strategic Management Journal, Vol.17, Winter Special Issue, Pp 45-62.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Machiavelli - Human Nature Essays - Italian Politicians,

Machiavelli - Human Nature In The Prince Niccolo Machiavelli presents a view of governing a state that is drastically different from that of humanists of his time. Machiavelli believes the ruling Prince should be the sole authority determining every aspect of the state and put in effect a policy which would serve his best interests. These interests were gaining, maintaining, and expanding his political power.1 His understanding of human nature was a complete contradiction of what humanists believed and taught. Machiavelli strongly promoted a secular society and felt morality was not necessary but in fact stood in the way of an effectively governed principality.2 Though in come cases Machiavelli's suggestions seem harsh and immoral one must remember that these views were derived out of concern Italy's unstable political condition.3 Though humanists of Machiavelli's time believed that an individual had much to offer to the well being of the state, Machiavelli was quick to mock human nature. Humanists believed th at "An individual only 'grows to maturity- both intellectually and morally- through participation' in the life of the state."4 Machiavelli generally distrusted citizens, stating that " time of adversity, when the state is in need of it's citizens there are few to be found."5 Machiavelli further goes on to question the loyalty of the citizens and advises the Prince that "...because men a wretched creatures who would not keep their word to you, you need keep your word to them."6 However, Machiavelli did not feel that a Prince should mistreat the citizens. This suggestion once again to serve the Prince's best interests. If a prince can not be both feared and loved, Machiavelli suggests, it would be better for him to be feared bey the citizens within his own principality. He makes the generalization that men are, "...ungrateful, fickle, liars, and deceivers, they shun danger and are greedy for profit; while you treat them well they are yours."7 He characterizes men as being self ce ntered and not willing to act in the best interest of the state,"[and when the prince] is in danger they turn against [him]."8 Machiavelli reinforces the prince's need to be feared by stating: Men worry less about doing an injury to one who makes himself loved than to one who makes himself feared. The bond of love is one which men, wretched creatures they are, break when it is to their advantage to do so; but fear is strengthened by a dread of punishment which is always effective.9 In order to win honor, Machaivelli suggests that a prince must be readily willing to deceive the citizens. One way is to " his esteem for talent actively encouraging the able and honouring those who excel in their that they can go peaceably about their business."10 By encouraging citizens to excel at their professions he would also be encouraging them to "...increase the prosperity of the their state."11 These measures, though carried out in deception, would bring the prince honor and trust amongst the citizens, especially those who were in the best positions to oppose him. Machiavelli postulates that a prince must also deceive those who attempt to flatter him. [In] choosing wise men for his government and allowing those the freedom to speak the truth to him, and then only concerning matters on which he asks their opinion, and nothing else. But he should also question them toughly and listen to what they say; then he should make up his own mind.12 Since each person will only advice the prince in accord to his own interests, the prince must act on his own accord. Machiavelli discourages action to taken otherwise "...since men will always do badly by [the prince] unless they are forced to be virtuous."13 Machiavelli actively promoted a secular form of politics. He laid aside the Medieval conception "of the state as a necessary creation for humankinds spiritual, material, and social well-being."14 In such a state,"[a] ruler was justified in his exercise of polit ical power only if it contributed to the common good of the people he served, [and] the ethical side of a princes activity...ought to [be] based on Christian moral principles...."15 Machiavelli believed a secular form of government to be a more realistic type. His views